University of Aarhus
Dept of Computer Science
8200 Aarhus N - Denmark
Proc. ACM Human Factors in Computing Systems,
The Hague (Netherlands), 1-6 April 2000, ACM Press, pp 446-453.
This article introduces a new interaction model called Instrumental Interaction that extends and generalizes the principles of direct manipulation. It covers existing interaction styles, including traditional WIMP interfaces, as well as new interaction styles such as two-handed input and augmented reality. It defines a design space for new interaction techniques and a set of properties for comparing them. Instrumental Interaction describes graphical user interfaces in terms of domain objects and interaction instruments. Interaction between users and domain objects is mediated by interaction instruments, similar to the tools and instruments we use in the real world to interact with physical objects. The article presents the model, applies it to describe and compare a number of interaction techniques, and shows how it was used to create a new interface for searching and replacing text.
Keywords: Interaction model, WIMP interfaces, direct manipulation, post-WIMP interfaces, instrumental interaction.
PDF file (449 Kb) - ACM DL citation page
© 2000, Association for Computing Machinery
Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroon use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage, and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee.
See also: AVI 2000 paper on Design Principles
See also: DIS 2000 paper on Design process
See also: UIST 2000 paper on Architecture and implementation
See also: PN 2000 paper for a summary of the CPN2000 project